Qigong and Tai Chi Research

Research related to Tai Chi and Qigong

Qigong and TaiChi strengthens the Natural flow of your inner energies and qi life force. Dr. Oz on Oprah says its the best exercise for whole body health and can reduce aging.

(see here Dr. Oz on Using Qigong to Combat Aging Video) .

Harvard Medical School’s Harvard Health Publications May 2009 issue calls Tai Chi “medication in motion“. The article explains how tai chi, when combined with standard treatment, is helpful for a range of conditions including arthritis, low bone density, breast cancer, heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, Parkinson’s disease, sleep problems, and stroke.

Mayo Clinic Endorses Tai Chi, Yoga, and Meditation (a major component of Qigong) in the October 2009 Mayo Clinic Health Letter.

IOS Press (2012, June 19). Tai Chi increases brain size, benefits cognition in randomized controlled trial of Chinese elderly. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 13, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2012/06/120619123803.htm

 

Great Links to more research
http://www.taichiresearch.com/

National Institute of Health Web Page on Tai Chi

Epigenetic changes in response to tai chi practice: a pilot investigation of DNA methylation marks.
The effects of Tai Chi on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a systematic review.

 

Scientific Papers

Lan C, Chen SY, Lai JS, Wong MK. 1999. The effect of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory function in patients with coronary artery bypass surgery. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise. 31(5):634-638PURPOSE: This study prospectively evaluated the training effect of a 1-yr Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) program for low-risk patients with coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS) after a postoperative outpatient (phase II) cardiac rehabilitation program. METHODS: Twenty patients with mean age of 56.5+/-7.4 yr completed this study. The TCC group included nine men who practiced classical Yang TCC with an exercise intensity of 48-57% heart rate range (HRR). The control group included 11 men whom were recommended to do a home-based self-adjusted exercise program with similar intensity of phase II cardiac rehabilitation. Graded exercise tests were performed before and after 1 yr of training for all subjects. RESULTS: Mean attendance of the TCC group was 3.8+/-1.5 times weekly in contrast to 1.7+/-1.1 times for the control group. During the follow-up examination, the TCC group increased 10.3% in VO2peak (from 26.2+/-4.4 to 28.9+/-5.0 mL x kg(-1) min(-1), P<0.01) and increased 11.9% in peak work rate (from 135+/-26 W to 151+/-28 W, P<0.01). However, the control group showed slight decrease in VO2peak from 26.0+/-3.9 to 25.6+/-4.6 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) and in peak work rate from 131+/-23 W to 128+/-32 W. At the ventilatory threshold, the TCC group also showed significant increase in VO2 and work rate (P<0.05). The control group did not significantly change in these variables. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that a 1-yr TCC program for low-risk patients with CABS could favorably enhance cardiorespiratory function.

Lai JS, Lan C, Wong MK, Teng SH. 1998. Two-year trends in cardiorespiratory function among older Tai Chi Chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30(3):345-351.PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on health fitness in older individuals. Methods: Thirty-eight community-dwelling persons aged 58 to 70 yr completed this study. The TCC group included 9 men and 11 women; the control group included 9 men and 9 women. The TCC group practiced TCC for 11.2+/-1.4 months, with the attendance of 4.6+/-1.3 times x wk(-1). Each session included 20 min of warm-up, 24 min of TCC practice, and 10 min of cooldown. The exercise intensity was 52-63% of the heart rate range. Cardiorespiratory function, strength, flexibility, and percent of body fat were evaluated before and at the end of this study. RESULTS: The male TCC group showed 16.1% increase in VO2max (P < 0.01), 11 degrees increase in thoracic/lumbar flexibility (P < 0.05), 18.1% increase in muscle strength of knee extensor (P < 0.01), and 15.4% increase of knee flexor (P < 0.05). The female TCC group showed 21.3% increase in VO2max (P < 0.01), 8.8 degrees increase in flexibility (P < 0.05), 20.3% increase in muscle strength of knee extensor (P < 0.05), and 15.9% increase of knee flexor (P < 0.05). The control group showed no significant change in these variables. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that a 12-month Tai Chi Chuan program is effective for improving health fitness of the elderly.

Lai JS, Lan C, Wong MK, Teng SH. 1995. Two-year trends in cardiorespiratory function among older Tai Chi Chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 43(11):1222-1227OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the training effects of Chinese shadow boxing, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), on the maintenance of cardiorespiratory function in older individuals. DESIGN: Prospective study of a cohort of TCC practitioners and a group of sedentary controls examined 2 years after initial examination. SETTING: Research project at a hospital-based exercise physiology laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-four community-dwelling older adults (mean age: 64 +/- 9 years) with no significant cardiovascular, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal disease completed this study. The TCC group, 23 male and 22 female subjects, had been practicing TCC regularly for 6.7 +/- 3.3 years. The control group included 21 male and 18 female sedentary subjects with age and body size matched to the TCC group. INTERVENTION: During the period of the study, the TCC practitioners practiced TCC 5.0 +/- 1.1 times per week. Each session included 20 minutes of warm up, 24 minutes of TCC training, and 10 minutes of cool down. The baseline cardiorespiratory function was recorded in the initial exercise test. The same measurements were repeated 2 years later to determine the rate of decline of cardiorespiratory function. Furthermore, heart rates (HR) were monitored in 18 men and 16 women during the performance of TCC to determine the exercise intensity of TCC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The study measured 2-year trends of cardiorespiratory function in both groups. RESULTS: In the TCC group, the males showed a 2.8% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from 31.6 +/- 7.6 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 30.7 +/- 7.1 mL x kg-1 x min-1; the females showed a 2.9% decrease in VO2 max from 20.7 +/- 2.3 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 20.1 +/- 2.5 mL x kg-1 x min-1. In contrast, the male control group showed a 6.6% decrease in VO2max from 24.4 +/- 4.4 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 22.8 +/- 4.4 mL x kg-1 x min-1; the females showed a 7.4% decrease in VO2max from 16.2 +/- 2.3 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 15.0 +/- 2.7 mL x kg-1 x min-1. At the ventilatory threshold (VeT), the sedentary group also showed a significant decrease in VO2. During the steady-state performance of TCC, subjects’ mean HR was approximately the HR at the VeT (53-57% of HRmax reserve). CONCLUSION: The data substantiate that practicing Tai Chi Chuan regularly may delay the decline of cardiorespiratory function in older individuals. In addition, TCC may be prescribed as a suitable aerobic exercise for older adults.

Zhuo D, Shephard RJ, Plyley MJ, Davis GM. 1984. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during Tai Chi Chuan exercise. Canadian Jounral of Applied Sport Science 9(1):7-10.Tai Chi Chuan is a form of traditional Chinese exercise which has been widely practised in China for preventive and therapeutic purposes. The present study was designed to determine the physiological demands of this exercise modality. Eleven healthy males, aged 28.4 years, were studied for oxygen cost and related metabolic variables, heart rate and blood pressure during the performance of the Long-Form Tai Chi Chuan of Yang’s style. Data was collected by an automated respiratory gas analyzer (Jeger Ergooxyscreen) and ECG telemetry during a 17-25 minute performance session (X = 22 minutes). The average energy cost for the Long-Form Tai Chi Chuan was 4.1 Mets, corresponding to a mean VO2 value of 1.03 l X min-1 or 14.5 ml X kg-1 X min-1. The mean peak heart rate during the exercises was 134 beats per minute. These values suggest that the Long-Form Tai Chi Chuan may be classed as moderate exercise, and its intensity does not exceed 50% of the individual’s maximum oxygen intake.

Lan C, Lai JS, Wong MK, Yu ML. 1996. Cardiorespiratory function, flexibility, and body composition among geriatric Tai Chi Chuan practitioners. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 77(6):612-616.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the health-related fitness of geriatric Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practitioners. DESIGN: Case-control study of a TCC group and a group of sedentary controls. SETTING: Research project at a hospital-based exercise physiology laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-six community-dwelling senior persons (mean age 69.3 +/- 3.9 yr), a TCC group that included 22 men and 19 women and a control group of sedentary subjects that included 18 men and 17 women with matched age and body size. INTERVENTION: The TCC group had practiced TCC regularly for 11.8 +/- 5.6 years, with an exercise frequency of 4.3 +/- 1.3 times per week. Each session included 20 minutes of warm-up, 24 minutes of TCC training, and 10 minutes of cool-down. Exercise intensity was estimated to exceed 70% of maximal heart rate (HRmax). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Breath-by-breath measurement of cardiorespiratory function was obtained during the incremental exercise of leg cycling. Flexibility of thoracic/lumbar spine was measured by an electronic inclinometer. Percentages of body fat was calculated from biceps and subcapsular skinfolds. RESULTS: In the peak exercise, men in the TCC group showed 19% higher peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in comparison with their sedentary counterparts (26.9 +/- 4.7 mL/kg/min vs 21.8 +/- 3.1 mL/kg/min). Women in the TCC group also showed 18% higher VO2peak than in the sedentary group (20.1 +/- 2.9 mL/kg/ min vs 16.5 +/- 2.0 mL/kg/min). The TCC group also showed higher oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold. In addition, the TCC practitioners were characterized by greater flexibility and lower percentage of body fat in comparison with their sedentary counterparts. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that TCC training has benefits for health-related fitness, and it may be prescribed as a suitable conditioning exercise for the elderly.

Brown DD, Mucci WG, Hetzler RK, Knowlton RG. 1989. Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses during formalized T’ai Chi Chuan exercise. Research quarterly for Exercise and Sport 60(3):246-250.T’ai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a widely practiced Chinese martial art said to physically develop balance and coordination as well as enhance emotional and mental health. TCC consists of a series of postures combined into a sequential movement providing a smooth, continuous, low-intensity activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to the Long Form of Yang’s style TCC. In addition, the subjects’ TCC responses were compared to their ventilatory and cardiovascular responses during cycle ergometry at an oxygen consumption (VO2) equivalent to the mean TCC VO2. Six experienced (M = 8.3 yrs) male TCC practitioners served as subjects with data collected during the Cloud H and movement of the TCC exercise. Significantly (p less than .05) lower responses for ventilatory frequency (Vf) (11.3 and 15.7 breaths.min-1), ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO2) (23.47 and 27.41), and the ratio of dead space ventilation to tidal volume (VD/VT) (20 and 27%) were found in TCC in comparison to cycle ergometry. The percentage of minute ventilation used for alveolar ventilation was significantly higher during TCC (p less than .03) than cycle ergometry, with mean values of 81.1% and 73.1%, respectively. Cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate were not significantly different between TCC exercise and cycle ergometry at the same oxygen consumption. We concluded that, during TCC, expert practitioners show significantly different ventilatory responses leading to more efficient use of the ventilatory volume than would be expected from comparable levels of exertion on a cycle ergometer.

Channer KS, Barrow D, Barrow R, Osborne M, Ives G. Changes in haemodynamic parameters following Tai Chi Chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. Postgraduate Medical Journal 72(848):349-351.In this study, 126 patients (90 males, average age 56 years, range 39-80) were randomised to Wu Chian-Ch’uan style Tai Chi (38), aerobic exercise (41) or a non-exercise support group (47) following acute myocardial infarction. Patients attended twice weekly for three weeks then weekly for a further five weeks. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before and after each session. Over the 11 sessions of exercise there was a negative trend in diastolic blood pressure only in the Tai Chi group (Rs = 0.79, p < 0.01). Significant trends in systolic blood pressure occurred in both exercise groups (Rs = 0.64 and 0.63, both p < 0.05). Only four (8%) patients completed the support group eight-week programme which was less than the number completing Tai Chi (82%; p < 0.001) and aerobic exercise groups (73%; p < 0.001).

Schneider D, Leung R. 1991. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to the performance of Wing Chun and T’ai Chi Chuan exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 12(3):319-23.The primary purpose of this study was to examine the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to the continuous performance of Wing Chun and T’ai Chi Chuan exercise. No significant differences in VO2max or HRmax obtained during treadmill exercise were found between the practitioners of the two styles. Average values for oxygen uptake (VO2) were 23.3 +/- 7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1 (6.6 METS) and 16.0 +/- 3.9 ml.kg-1.min-1 (4.6 METS) for Wing Chun and T’ai Chi Chuan exercise, respectively. Mean heart rates obtained during exercise were 137 +/- 25 beats.min-1 for Wing Chun and 116 +/- 22 beats.min-1 for T’ai Chi Chuan exercise. These exercise values corresponded to 52.4% of VO2max and 70.5% of HRmax for Wing Chun and only 36.4% of VO2max and 59.8% of HRmax for T’ai Chi Chuan exercise. Thus, only the continuous performance of Wing Chun exercise elicited VO2 and HR responses that would be expected to bring about a cardiorespiratory training effect in subjects with a relatively low initial VO2max. The ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VE/VO2) obtained during T’ai Chi Chuan exercise (21.7) was significantly lower than for Wing Chun exercise (24.2), suggesting that T’ai Chi practitioners utilize efficient breathing patterns during exercise. Both Wing Chun and T’ai Chi Chuan styles may have a small static component that produces a slightly elevated heart rate relative to metabolic load when compared to traditional aerobic activities. However, the effect was not severe and these forms of exercise should not be considered dangerous for individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

Kirsteins AE, Dietz F, Hwang SM. 1991. Evaluating the safety and potential use of a weight-bearing exercise, Tai-Chi Chuan, for rheumatoid arthritis patients. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 70(3):136-141The safety of a traditional Chinese exercise, Tai-Chi Chuan, on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was evaluated. RA patients, who received 1 h of Tai-Chi Chuan instruction once (n = 20) and twice (n = 15) a week for 10 consecutive wk in two separate studies, showed no deterioration in their clinical disease activities compared with the corresponding controls (n = 11 and 9, respectively). Testing parameters included joint tenderness, joint swelling, time to walk 50 feet, handgrip strength and a written functional assessment. No significant exacerbation of joint symptoms using this weight-bearing form of exercise was observed. Tai-Chi Chuan exercise appears to be safe for RA patients and may serve as an alternative for their exercise therapy and part of their rehabilitation program. Weight-bearing exercises have the potential advantages of stimulating bone growth and strengthening connective tissue, but this effect needs to be documented in long-term studies.

Koh TC. 1982. Tai Chi and ankylosing spondylitis–a personal experience. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 10(1-4):59-61On the suggestion of a Chinese physician the author took up Tai Chi, a traditional Chinese exercise, in an attempt to relieve symptoms from his moderately severe ankylosing spondylitis. Conventional medical therapy, used over a 15 year period, had proven of only limited benefit. Tai Chi consists of a series of intricate exercise sequences, and after 2 1/2 years of daily practice the author now feels stronger and healthier than before. Pain, weakness and general malaise return if practice is neglected for as little as one week. It is felt that Tai Chi is of value in minimizing the flexion deformity of the spine. Improved skeletal muscle strength, limb co-ordination, balance, chest movement and ability to relax are further benefits.

Wolf SL, Coogler C, Xu T. 1997. Exploring the basis for Tai Chi Chuan as a therapeutic exercise approach. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 78(8):866-892.For many centuries Tai Chi has been a martial art form, practiced primarily in Oriental cultures. For the past 300 years this movement approach has been used as an exercise form, practiced by millions of Chinese elderly people. To date, virtually no information exists about the therapeutic elements of this intriguing movement sequence. This article provides a historical review of existing documentation of reputed Tai Chi benefits. The 108 “forms” of Tai Chi Chuan are reduced to 10 composite forms for ease of application of these forms to older individuals within a reasonable time frame. An effort is set forth to identify the potential therapeutic elements within these forms.

The Influence of Qiqong Training on Coherence of EEG during One Year Periodby Yang Sihuan, Yang Qinfei ,Shi Jiming, Cao Yi

Institute of Qigong Science, Beijing College of Traditional Chinese Medicine 100029Beijing

The results showed that Qigong training had affected coherence of EEGs between the two frontal regions, between two occipital regions and between two temporal regions of the Qigong group in meditation: The most significant with the increase of training period, the total coherence value between left and right temporal areas went up. It seems that there is a certain dosage–effect relationship. It is suggested that the value of the total coherence between left and right temporal areas should be comparatively sensitive and objective parameter of meditation.

Experimental Research on Qjgong’s Effect on the Digestive Tract by Yu Min, Huo Jiming, Wang Yuain, Zhang Guifling, Chi Zhenft~Pharmaceutical Department of Jiamusi College

Research Department of Somantic Science of Jiamusi Medical College

Microbiologic Teaching and Researching Section of Jiamusi Medical College

Qigong effect on the intestinal microflora: When feces of 7 exercisers over a long period were assessed. The number of pathogenic bacteria such as intestinal bacille, cocci etc. were fewer then that of the control group, while the number of the beneficial anaerobes, for instance, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria were higher compared with the control group. The test in vitro had also proved that the emitted Qi had bactericidal action on pathogenic bacteria, Huichunsheng-bifidobacteria could bring about a great advance of a secretion of intestine in vitro. Qigong appears to sharpen the parasympathetic excitability to strengthen peristasis and increase secretion of bile.

A Studv of Qigong Harmonizing The Human Circulatory System by Bao Guojing, Wei Shaoxing, Zhang Shenru, Li Shugang Xingcheng Sanatorium of Air Force, PLA

Load test of the heart function; The value of PWC 170 of the qigong group and the control group having mineral spring bath was measured 30 days pre-and post-their practice with a BCM-III type heart function machine. The subjects were given two different loads during the test, each lasting for 3 min. with an interval of 3 min. The heart rate was recorded for half min., starting from 2.5 mm. and then the value of PWC 170 and V02 max was calculated. The results showed that in the qigong group average it increased by 48.8% after the exercise and the control group averagely increased by 7.5%, a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05%). The qigong group’s V02 max increased by 29.9% after the exercise and the control group’s increased by 4.4%, a significant difference between the two groups (P<:0.05%). It indicates that qigong is an effective method to strengthen the heart and lung function.

Limbs volume pulse chart: Amplitude of wave of both sides increased remarkably after the exercise (P<0.01); the resistance index of both sides decreased ~<0.05); the left inflow volume speed increased by 16.7% after the exercise (P<0.01); the right increased by 17.8% (P<0.05). It shows that blood volume of the lower limbs increases the blood resistance decreases after the exercise. To sum up, qigong may harmonize the blood circulation remarkably, playing a very important role in preventing and cure of cardiovascular diseases and lower limb disease. Qigong is a kind of exercise to harmonize the mind, breathing and bodily posture, a rehabilitative method for many chronic diseases. The result has provided a preliminary experimental basis for preventing and curing the circulatory system diseases.

The Effect of Qigong on Therapeutic Balancing Measured Bv Electroacununcture According to Voll (EAV) by Kenneth M. Sancier

Qigong Institute, East West Academy of Healing Arts, 450 Sutter Street, San Francisco,

CA 94108

Two series of EAV measurements were made by the same operator and equipment. In both series, the subjects were asked to perform a qigong exercise of their choosing; usually meditation or moving qigong. In the first series, four subjects were examined by EAV before and after qigong exercise. Three of the subjects were experienced qigong practitioners. The fourth subject was balanced by one of the qigong practitioners. The results show that qigong practice decreased the average meter readings of the four subjects taken as a group from 70.8+ 4.8 to 52.7 +2.4. The average change was -25.5 + 4.9% with a statistical significance of p–0.004. Indicator drops that were observed for all subjects prior to qigong decreased in value after qigong practice. For example, the sum of all indicator drops for each of three subjects decreased in value from 20.22 and 53 to zero, respectively, and for the fourth subject it decreased from 129 to 28.

Effect of Qigong On Personality by Tang Cimei, Wei Xing

Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China

It is well known that personality and health are closely related. For example, the incidence of CHI) is associated with type A behavior pattern (TABP); several psychosomatic diseases are usually associated with neuroticism and so on. So if these types of personality could be modified by practising qigong, it should be useful to prevent and cure some diseases.

In the first part of our research, the effect of qigong on personality was investigated with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Type A Behavior Pattern Questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-two subjects who have practiced qigong more than two years by a mean age of 65 were used as the experimental group. Ninety subjects aged over 60 who had never practiced qigong were used as the control group. The results showed that the N score was significantly lower in the qigong group than that in the control group. The persons of TABP amounted to 39.3% in the qigong group, 51.1% in the control group. In the second part of our research, all of the subjects were college students aged 21. Fifty subjects has practiced qigong more that two years, and 97 subjects had never practiced qigong. The results were similar to the first part of our research, i.e., N score of EPQ and percentage of TABP were significantly lower in the qigong group than those in the control group. These results suggest that qigong can relieve neuroticism, and TABP can be changed by practicing qigong. As a great number of subjects were investigated in these researches mentioned above, the results should suggest that qigong is beneficial to correct the unhealthy tendency of personality to certain extent. But because of the cross-section study, it was difficult to exclude the factor of self-selection, then the longitudinal study was carried out by us.

In the third part of our research, the data of EPQ and TABP were collected from 158 college students when they started to practice qigong. Two years later, EPQ and TABP were measured again. There were 33 subjects who has persisted qigong exercise during the two years, but 83 subjects only for several days and 42 subjects for a few months. The N score of EPQ in the persistent group decreased from 13.415.1 to 1.l.lI4.9~<0.02).. No significant change of N score was observed in the third group (83 subjects, N score from 13.2+4.7 to 14.215.2). In the persistent group, TH score of TABP decreased significantly and CH score decreased slightly. In the third group, both TH and SH score has no remarkable change between two measures. All of these results suggest that qigong has positive effect on regulation of the unhealthy tendency in personality

A Survey of Interrelation Between Qigong Concerning 1-23 Factors of Intelligence And Personality in Young People By Liu Tianjun, Zhang Li

Beijing College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China

The experiment surveyed two groups of students in the Beijing College of Traditional Chinese Medicine who had or had not practiced Qigong with the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices ( SPM) and Edwards’ Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS). The scores for first time 13.181+4.838, second time 15.394j3.733, p<0.05 in the second group the scores were first time 16.788 + 5 561 seGond time 14.697 + 3 748 p< 0.05 indicating Qigong practice can influence logic thinking capacity.

A Study of the Biological Effect Of The Emitted Oi On Microbe By Liu Zirong, Wang Jinshen, Ren Jianping, Yuan Hua

Microbiology Department, Shandong University, Yuanji Study Research Institute, E Zhou, Hubei Providence, China

The emitted Qi was produced to act respectively on prokaryote-Staphylococcus aureus Pseudomanos aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus, eukaryote – saccharomyces sp. and biological big molecules – seven pectin enzymes. After 13 times of repeated experiments, the property of the emitted Qi was shown as follows.

First, Staphylococcus aureus was treated for 8 minutes, the lethal rate was 76%, 1.29 times as effective as that of the bactericide rate of 2 % carbolie acid in equal time. Secondly, it has different lethal influence on different bacteria. For example, the lethal rate on Bacillus species was 41.9%, while on non-Bacillus species was 72.9%. The former was lower than the latter. It was also different in microbe’s different growing period. For example, the lethal rate on vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus is 50%(mean of 4 times’ experiments) and it was 41.3% with regard to the resting spore.

Thirdly, it had lethal influence on not only prokauyote but also eukaryote. For example, the lethal rate on Saccharomyces carlbergensis was 34%.

Fourthly, it could lead to changes of the resistance of Staphyloccus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa tb 22 different kinds of medicines.

Fifthly, it had obvious influence on pectin enzyme activity.

Sixthly, it could act through some glass obstacles, which showed its strong penetration and direction.

In brief, the biological effect produced by the emitted qi on microbe is much similar to that produced by physical and chemical factors. Therefore, the identification of the physical property of the emitted qi is reliable and convincible.

The Repeated Experiments By Using The Emitted Qi In Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury by Wan Sujian, He Yuzhu, Hao Shuping, Liu Yuding, Yu Chuan

Qigong Institute, Beijing Military Region Hebei Langfarg People’s Hospital, Beijing Agricultural University

Eighteen small test pigs were used in this study. They were divided in three groups (Group A, B, C). Spinal cord injury was made by the Allen’s method with straight drop strength 400 gcf(50 x 80cm). Group C was the control group. The clinical effect of treatment and its mechanism were observed in the acute stage of spinal cord injury treated by the Ba Gua Induction Qigong 2 – 3 times per day. After 89 days treatment, the paraplegic pigs in Group A all could walk, the nervous function recovered to some extent. The nervous function of 83% of the pigs in Group B were recovered. Not any one in Group C could stand. The result showed obvious difference (p<0.0 1).The autopsy revealed that the degree of paraplegia was proportional to the atrophy and adhesion of spinal cord. This study proved that the Ba Gua Induction Qigong could produce a biological effect in regulating qi and blood, as well as the meridians.It can improve the regional circulation, remove blood stasis with calm and analgesic effect. In conclusion, the Ba Gua Induction Qigong has good effect of ESCI.

An Experimental Research Of The Influence Of The Emitted Oi On Cancer Growth. Metastasis and Survival Time Of The Host by Qian Shusen, Sun Wei, Liu Qing, Wan Yi, Shi xiaodong

China Rehabilitation Research Center, Beijing 100077, China

In researches of the influence of the emitted qi on cancer growth, metastasis and survival time of host, 114 animal cancer models were used in three batches. Tumor models were formed in mice by transplantation of U27 or MO, cancer cells into subcutaneous tissues of the right armpit respectively. These mice of the two groups were fed with the same food. From the second day or seventh day after transplantation of cancer cells, the mice of the qigong group were treated for 10 – 30 minutes with the emitted qi every day, but the mice of the control group were not given any treatment. In experiment 1, on the 20th day after transplantation of cancer cells, all mice of the two groups were killed and all tumor volumes were measured individually. In experiment 2, on the 23rd and 33rd day after transplantation of cancer cells, all mice of the two groups were killed and all armpit lymph nodes and lungs were taken out individually and examined histopathologically. In experiment 3, when the mice of the two groups died, their survival time after transplantation of cancer cells was calculated respectively. The following results were found:

1 In experiment 1, the average tumor volume of the qigong group (31 mice, 2.2515.35cm3) was obviously lower than the control group (32 mice 6 32+10.02cm3), p<0.001.

2. In experiment 2, the metastatic rate (1/16) of lymph nodes in the qigong group was significantly lower than the control group (6/15), P<0.O5.

3. In experiment 3, the average survival time (35.4 d) of mice with cancer in the qigong group (10 mice) was obviously longer than the control group (10 mice, 30.5 d) P<0.002. These results indicate that the emitted qi can delay cancer growth, reduce metastatic rate and prolong the survival time of mice with cancer.